Saturday, June 25, 2011


A considerable exodus of Chinese has taken place in this colony during the last few years. Most, if not all, the celestial emigrants are returning to the Flowery Land, and now that others contemplate removing, the Chinese love of their departed kindred is exemplified in a manner which, to Europeans, to say the least (says the Bruce "Herald"), is revolting in its ghoulishness. We refer to the wholesale disinterment of Chinese corpses taking part in this Island at the present time. From information received, it appears that the bodies of upw-ards of 400 Chinamen (recently disinterred) are now deposited in depots —chiefly at Greymouth and Dunedin—awaiting transport to their fatherland. On Tuesday morning a party of ten almond-eyed strangers arrived at Milton, and inquiries as to the purport of their mission elicited the fact that they intended removing all that remained of a deceased countryman, who had been silently reposing in Fairfax cemetery for seven long years. Armed with spades, shovel, and grappling irons, the squad, under the supervision "of a half-caste Chinaman, proceeded to work. When the longburied coffin was brought to light, the scene which followed baffles description. It would take the imaginative pen of a Zola or a Defoe to fittingly describe in realistic language the revolting nature of the proceeding to a European. The modus operandi as described to us is as follows:—The Chinese after immersing their hands in some antiseptic wash, open the coffin and commence to remove any particle of flesh still adhering to the skeleton; they then smoke the bones in an ordinary riddle, aud afterwards hold the collection in a wire sieve over a brightly burning fire to accomplish the final cleansing. The recital of this is sickening enough in cold print, but the reality faugh! And yet this is the sort of thing that has been going on in Greymouth for months, and is now daily being performed by a paid band of Celestials throughout the South Island. No doubt it may be said that the disinterment of Chinamen (who have died in a foreign country) by their fellows is in accordance with ancient Chinese religion or national obligations, but such a barbaric custom is hardly justifiable considering the sanitary aspect of the matter, judged from a European standpoint. According to accounts which appear most reliable, nearly every Chinaman in New Zealand has contributed something, according to his means, and the work is being carried out by a contractor and nine men. Those who contribute are presented with a ticket with the amount stated thereon, and this is negotiable in some way when the pilgrims return to China. It is estimated that an expenditure of £20,000 (including the charter of a steamer, etc.) will have been entailed before the skeletons can be landed in China. Altogether the remains of about 45 Chinamen will, be shipped. The contractors have been engaged on their unenviable and repulsive task for about ten months now, and anticipate that their labours will be completed in another two months.

The carriage of the skeletons is also a matter of comment from a sanitary point of view. The bones, after removal from the original coffin, are placed in zinc-lined teakboxes. There is nothing suggestive about these, and being varnished they might pass for ordinary travelling trunks. This receptacle of what was once a human being is consigned to the depot by train, and the tools used in disinterment are bundled into the railway truck anyhow. The thought of a consignment of potatoes or other article of diet coming to you by the same truck next day is not inspiring. Surely this is a matter for the Health Department. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 219, 15 September 1902, Page 5



The removal of eleven Chinamen's bodies from the Waifcumete Cemetery will be begun to-morrow morning, and will continue for several days. The work will be restricted to the mornings of each day and for safety the cemetery will be closed against the general public until noon and opened for the afternoons. As the bodies are taken up from the graves they will be instantly placed into zinc coffins, and frantically sealed, before leaving the cemetery, so that the danger at the spread of disease will be very small indeed. The bodies are not to be stored for any length of time in Anckland but will be despached at the first opportunity to Dunedin. They will there be taken, aboard the Ventnor, the vessel which is to convey the bodies from other parts of the colony to China. The Ventnor may be seen in Auckland next Monday, when she is exp&oted to arrive from Java with a cargo of sugar for Chelsea. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 228, 25 September 1902, Page 4

The disinterment of Chinese bodies in the Waikumete cemetery is under the direction of Mr Mee Chang, the contractor who has carried out the work at other places in the colony. Mr Mee Chang is an elderly Wellington gentleman, who, is now in Auckland with his assistants. He is working under instructions frorii a Chinese firm, of whom Mr Ding Chong is manager. Mr Chang has been awaiting the arrival of zinc and solder from South by the Ngapuhi for the construction of the inner air-tight coffins. These goods arrived this morning at Onehunga, packed in four large cases and 10 small ones, and were forwarded to Auckland by train, reaching the city at noon. Mr Chang had a small quantity of zinc material in Auckland previously.

The operations were to have begun this morning, but have been deferred till to-morrow, and may possibly be commenced at daybreak, in order to get as much work as possible done before twelve noon, which is closing time each day. The Chinamen are to have complete control of the cemetery during the mornings, and then the place will be open to the general public during the afternoons. Mr Ericksen, the sexton at Waikumete, will be in attendance, and Mr Winstanley will be present on behalf of the Health Department. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 229, 26 September 1902, Page 5


The exhuming of the bodies of dead Chinamen from their graves in Waikumete cemetery began at daybreak his morning-. Nine bodies are to be lifted if they can be discovered, but it is doubtful if they can all be located with certainty, as the cemetery records appear to contain only four of the nine names. Some graves of unnamed persons will probably be opened for the purpose of ascertaining if the names of the missing Chinamen can be discerned on the coffins. There are known to be about twenty-two Chinese buried at Waikumete, but only those are being disturbed whose relations have arranged for the proceedings. An instance of the difficulties which attend the securing of the right bodies is presented by the case of a Chinaman who was drowned with two other Chinese on the Wairarapa. The names of the men were known at the time, but they could not be individually identified owing to their close resemblance to one another, and they were not separately named when buried. The question of how, to pick out the right man now is one which is likely to puzzle even a Chinaman. The possibilities which the intricacies of the situation open up are too far-reaching for speculation. The bodies are of all ages, the last disinterment movement having occurred twenty years ago, when about 200 bodies were taken. The present undertaking involves the removal of about 450 bodies from 30 or 4O cemeteries of the colony. There are 190 coffins stacked ready at Greymouth, 200 near Dunedin, and similar numbers in some other places. It is stated that one or two disinterments are to take place from the other cemeteries around Auckland. The expense is defrayed from a fund raised by subscription in the colony, together with a charge on the relatives who receive the remains in China equivalent to 30/. A contribution to the disinterment fund entitles each Chinaman to a pass guaranteeing him immunity from the penalty of £20, which he has otherwise to pay for re-admission to China. At twelve o'clock to-day only two bodies had been exhumed. The slowness of the proceedings was due to the want of zinc to make the inner coffins.
Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 230, 27 September 1902, Page 5


Time, 5.30 a.m., on a bitterly cold morning, in Waikumete Cemetery. Half-frozen, a pressman and a photographer attached to the staff of the "Graphic" make their way from the sexton's house to the furthermost corner of the cemetery, where is situated the section for Chinese and Atheists and aliens unprovided for elsewhere. A noise of hammering comes from the section, which is a good half mile from the Anglican and Presbyterian allotments, and on arrival work found to be in full operation. The reception of our "reporter and his photographic confrere is the reverse of friendly, and an immediate wrangle ensues amongst the gravediggers, evidently on the subject of the camera friend's presence. A Chinese halfcaste European insists on their instant ejectment. The sexton, however, who has been handed proper credentials, proves a firm friend, and insists that he, and not any Chinaman, or half-caste Chinaman, is in change of the cemetery, and that he has his instructions. Things then calm down a trifle, but the work is resumed amidst much grumbling, and many vindictive and malignant glances are cast at the camera, and muttered curses uttered at the photographer as he dodges round looking for a chance shot. Once, indeed, when the shutter clicks, a furious celestial raises his pick in menace, and mutters a threat to do for the intruders, 'but he thinks better of it, and at the intervention of the European coffinmaker a truce is declared until arrival of "the boss." That individual presently arrives. He scans the permit; gloomily enough, and 'bids that the photos be taken forthwith, and the photographer and pressman depart. It being pointed out that there is no picture yet to take, and seeing that bluff has no effect, all active opposition as at once and finally dropped, and no difficulty put in the way of obtaining pictures or witnessing the proceedings save in giving mendacious information, lighting fires to obscure the graves with smoke, and endeavouring to tire out the patience of the reporters, etc. By ten o'clock four graves are opened, but owing to the non-arrival of some solder and zinc from Auckland it, is decided to open only two coffins on this occasion. The first of these contained the corpse of one Kong Shang, who died in 1891, a young Celestial of 36. It was thought that there would be nothing but dry bones there, but the stiff white clay is evidently a preservative, for when the coffin, which is full of water, is opened, it is seen that the bones have a decided covering of what had once been flesh and though drenched in carbolic acid a sickening odour makes itself felt at intervals. Directly an attempt is made to stir the body it all falls to pieces, the decomposed flesh falling off in almost imperceptible flakes, which had doubtless been dust had the grave been dry. Very carefully the impassive Chinaman in the grave rinses and unconcernedly places on a sieve a thigh bone, then some ribs, and a skull, foillowed by the rest of the bones, minute search, indescribable in print, being made for the smaller bones and joints. It is an intensely gruesome spectacle, and the horror is added to by the indifference to sight and smell or sentiment evinced by the Celestial workmen. The venerafble clerk, a fine old fellow, with the face of an ascetic and a student, carefully tallies the bones which, having been rescoured in a large white tub, are finally dried and wrapped up, each duly docketed by the methodical old gentleman, who is evidently a most conscientious and probably deeply religious man. He, too, is fastidiously clean, and does not, one notes, eat as the others do in ithe midst of their noisome labours. The next body is that of a man who must have been of exceptional stature and weight for a Chinaman, and who has been dead but two years and a half. There is much difficulty in getting this coffin to the surface, and the opening thereof, and the awful stench which completely dominated all disinfectants when the body was removed to the zinc one prepared by the European tinsmith beggars description, and may be left to the imagination. None of those whose duty called them to be present are likely to forget the experience, or to desire a renewal of the same. The soldering having been completed, it must be admitted no effluvia was discernable. The zinc coffin was then put in a rode case and packed in sawdust ready for shipment. There is no reason to think the zinc coffins will not prove effective and inoffensive under ordinary ciroumstances, and careful usage, but a fall or any accident in loading would, one imagines, have very disastrous effects. The work ceased at noon to-day. Mr Wm Stanley, Government Sanitary Inspector, is present, and looks after his work in so thorough a manner that no fears need ibe entertained by settlers or the general public. The pictures secured 'by the "Graphic" protographer are of a unique nature and the most gruesome details having been omitted, are quite without offence. They will be published on Wednesday. The custom of the Chinese at home is to disinter bodies after seven years, and place the main bones in a large jar alongside the grave. It is in order to forward the bones to China for relatives to do this that the present exporting of remains is undertaken.
Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 231, 29 September 1902, Page 5


The steamer Ventnor arrived from Java this morning,and anchored in the stream. She brings a large cargo of raw sugar, and will berth at the Chelsea Wharf tomorrow morning to discharge. She is quite a new steamer, having been built as recently as 1901 at Port Glasgow by Messrs Russel and Co. for the Ventnor Steamship Company. The vessel is an iron steamer of 3960 tons gross register, and her principal dimensions are: Length 344 ft, beam 49ft, depth (loaded) 29ft. The master is Captain H. G. Ferry, and wUh him are associated the following deck officers:—Chief, J. Cameron; second, Q. Lamson. The chief engineer is M. McCash. The master reports .-The Ventnor left Java on September 10, and had fine weather to entering the Torres Straits, thence strong south-east winds ancl heavy seas until the New Zealand coast was, sighted at the Poor Knights yesterday, followed by thick, rainy weather down the coast to arrival as above. The Ventnor will remain in port about nine days, sailing hence for Newcastle and the East. It has been also arranged that the steamer will convey to China the disinterred Chinese bodies from the Waikumete Cemetery. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 234, 2 October 1902, Page 4


Mr Cochrane asked the Waitemata County Council this afternoon to raise an objection to any repetition of the disinterment proceeding, which had been going on at Waikumete. The exhuming of bodies was a very nasty thing for any district, and had caused a good deal of grumbling at Waikumete. Mr Bruce said the disinterments were sanctioned by law. Mr Cochrane said Southern councils had protested. He was told the scene was flisg-usting in the extreme. The Treasurer said the wet clay soil of "Waikuincte had a preservative effect. At Devonport after a body had been buried a few years nothing remained but bones and the tin plate of the coffin. The Chairman (Mr O'Neill) said it was a matter of sentiment with the Chinese people to take the bodies home. Mr E. W. Alison did not see what they as a council had to do in the matter. Mr Cochrane thought the Chinamen should in future be compelled to bury on a small island if they were determined to disinter. The council took no action in the matter. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 235, 3 October 1902, Page 5


The disinterment of the bodies of the Chinese from cemeteries throughout the colony during last, and the early part of the present month excited a good deal of interest. In Greymouth nearly 200 bodies were "resurrected" and stored in a shed in the cemetery, much to the disgust of the residents, who unsuccessfully protested against the bodies being allowed to remain above ground until the arrival of the Ventnor. The expenses of the removal of the dead Chinese to their native land, where alone their spirits could find perfect peace, was borne by their friends, the undertaking being so costly that, only the wealthier relatives could afford the expenditure, many hundreds of unhappy Celestials being obliged "to lie in cold corruption and to rot" in the cemeteries of the "foreign devil."

The exhumation of all the bodies was carried out by the one party of "resurrectionists," Chinese with a half-caste leader and a European plumber. The Chinamen carried out their gruesome work with the utmost indifference, knocking off to eat their meals immediately after handling the bodies without a thought °Some of the bodies had been interred about twenty years others within the last year. In the case of those that had been reduced to skeletons the bones wwere carefully sorted, labelled and packed in boxes ready for shipment. In other cases the flesh had reached an advanced stage of putrefaction, and in these the bones were stripped and similarly, treated to the skeletons of older bodies. When the bodies were still whole they were packed in air-tight coffins, soldered down, and labelled with the name of the departed. In all eleven corpses were taken from their graves at Waikumete. These were not shipped on the Ventnor at Auckland, but were taken down the coast in smaller vessels to Wellington, and there transhipped to the Ventnor.

The Chinese in Auckland were excited on the receipt of the news of the foundering, but when questioned as to what, according to Confucianism, would become of the spirits of the sunken Celestials, they professed ignorance. Auckland Star, Volume XXXIII, Issue 257, 29 October 1902, Page 5

Chinese part of Waikumete Cemetery

Thursday, June 23, 2011



(SYDNEY; This Day. The Libour Council has adopted the report of tbe special committee appointed to inquire into Chinese 'competition in the various trades. Tbe report says thab the competition in some classes of work ia very keen. There are 300 Chinese engage in laundry work, 700 in the grocery business, and 873 as hotel employees, but the last-named have affiliated to the Union. Chinese have taken every step to ca'pturethe retail grocery trade, especially in the country districts, while 3500 Chinese are engaged in market gardening, and have practic&lly captured that industry. Tbe competition porhaps is the most keen in the furniture trade, ia which the Chinese are about equal to the whites. In order to ovorcome the competition, the chief factors of the success of which are long hours and low wages among the Chinese, the report recommends propaganda work on the Chinese question prohibition of all Asiatics in the .mining industry, the rigorous enforcing of the Gaming and Public Health Acts, the entire abolition of Sunday work, the opening and closing of all shops , and factories at stated hours, and the stamping of all goods wholly or partly made by Chinese. Nelson Evening Mail, Volume XXXVIII, Issue 67, 2 April 1904, Page 3

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

TOMORROW'S WRESTLING.Wong Bok Cheung, the clever Chinese wrestler, who arrived in' New Zealand this week from Australia, will make his first appearance of the season at the Wellington Shqw, Stadium tomorrow night against* ' George Walker, claimant of the British Empire title. In Australia,, as in New Zealand; Wong is a great favourite with the crowds.He is an expert at boththe dropkick and the flying tackle and his famous "King Foo stopper" hold is one of the most devastating in modern wresting. Since his last match Walker is stil the greatest drawing card in New Zealand wrestling. Particulars are advertised. Evening Post, Volume CXX, Issue 107, 1 November 1935, Page 3


After a season in New Zealand last year Wong Bok Cheung moved on to Australia and during the whole period since — winter and summer — has wrestled continuously in the Commonwealth States. Although, of course, of Chinese descent, Wong is really an American citizen by birth and he learnt all the tricks of the mat game in the States. Evening Post, Volume CXX, Issue 108, 2 November 1935, Page 22
CHINESE WRESTLER. Wong Bok Cheung, who has returned to New Zealand to wrestle after an extensive tour of Australia. Evening Post, Volume CXX, Issue 108, 2 November 1935, Page 22

"Evening Post" Photo. The Representative committee whic controlled the sports gathering held by Chinese residents of of the Chinese Republic. On the right, the finish of the bicycle race. Evening Post, Volume CVIII, Issue 89, 11 October 1929, Page 7

Chinese residents hf Wellington and others interested assembled in the rooms of the New Zealand Chinese Association on Tuesday to commemorate the twenty-eighth anniversary of the Republic of China. Evening Post, Volume CXXVIII, Issue 89, 12 October 1939, Page 9

PIGEON ENGLISH' AT THE POLICE COURT. No need for Chinese Interpreter.

Observer, Volume XI, Issue 636, 7 March 1891, Page 8


Otago Witness , Issue 2421, 9 August 1900, Page 27


New Zealand Free Lance, Volume II, Issue 99, 24 May 1902, Page 15

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Chinese Portraits

This exhibition is a small selection of photographs from the certificates of registration. These were issued by the Collector of Customs in Dunedin, and allowed Chinese and other alien residents to re-enter New Zealand, if leaving temporarily.

The Chinese Immigrants Act 1881 and the Immigration Restriction Act 1899 and its amendments, set out details of requirements to be met by aliens entering New Zealand. Permits were generally needed and, for this reason, aliens living in this country and departing overseas temporarily, needed certificates of registration to ensure that they would be permitted to re-enter New Zealand.

These certificates of registration were issued by the Collector of Customs in Dunedin. They were issued in duplicate, with one copy given to the alien and one retained by the Collector.

Upon return (not necessarily to the same port), the certificate was presented to Customs officials, and once positively identified, the alien was allowed to enter. The surrendered certificate was then forwarded to the Collector of Customs who had issued it, where it was subsequently filed with his copy. For Chinese, the certificates also exempted them from paying the poll tax required under the Chinese Immigrants Act 1881, provided they had paid it on their first entry.

The certificates generally show the following details - port and date of issue of certificate, name of alien and place of residence, identification particulars such as the place and date of birth, physical features, arrival details, and a photograph. Some of the earlier certificates also required fingerprints. Some of the certificates also have attached the initial application, or correspondence regarding the individual concerned.

William Yip Chong

Sue Ham arrived in Dunedin on 8 June 1904 on the "Victoria" from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown

Joe Fai arrived in Dunedin on 7 March 1875 from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown.

Jimmy Kong arrived in Dunedin in 1872 from Hong Kong. Orignally a native of Canton. Photographer - H A Gill, Frederick Street, Dunedin.

Kaan Hoong Shum arrived in Dunedin on 26 April 1895 from Sydney. Photographer - Wrigglesworth & Binns, Dunedin.

Chee Hoy left New Zealand from Dunedin on 1 March 1907. Photographer - Unknown.

James Shum arrived in Dunedin about 1870. Photographer - Unknown

Joe Lee Tie arrived in Dunedin in 1874 from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown.

Chow Lee Tie arrived in Dunedin in 1876 on the "Chingtu" from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown.

Yip Bin arrived in Dunedin on 4 August 1904 on the "Warrimoo" from Sydney. Photographer - Unknown.

Yong Kum You arrived in Dunedin on 8 April 1878 on the "Wakatipu" via the "Bertha" from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown.

Yeung Seung arrived in Dunedin in May 1888 on the "Afghan" from Hong Kong. Photographer - T Borrow, Dunedin.

Sew Hip arrived in Dunedin in April 1880 from Canton. Photographer - Unknown.

Wong Duck left New Zealand from Dunedin on 28 January 1909. Photographer - H J Gill, Frederick Street, Dunedin.

Wong Tsuen Shing arrived in Dunedin on 8 September 1895 from Sydney. Photographer - Morris, Dunedin.

Wong Lye Kwong arrived in Dunedin in 1874 from Hong Kong. Photographer - De Maus, Port Chalmers.

Shum Dick (or Ah Dick) arrived in Dunedin on 27 April 1871 on the "North Star" from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown

Lee Tsz Chin arrived in Dunedin on 2 July 1903 on the "Mokoia" from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown

Young Tuang (Young Yuen) arrived in Dunedin on 7 May 1888 on the "Te Anau" from Hong Kong via Melbourne. Photographer - Muir & Moodie, Dunedin.

Moon King arrived in Dunedin on 24 March 1903 on the "Mararoa" via the "Chang Sha" from China. Photographer - Wriggleworth & Binns, Dunedin.

Chin Suey Chin Suey arrived in Dunedin in 1879 from Sydney. Photographer - Clayton, Gore, Southland.

Way Yee arrived in Dunedin on 6 July 1894 on the "Wakatipu" from Hong Kong. Photographer - W Esquilant, Exchange Court Studios, Dunedin.

Sew Kew and son arrived in Dunedin about 1875 from Hong Kong. Photographer - Unknown

Kwok Tso Wain arrived in Dunedin on 19 August 1893. Photogrpaher - C W Pattillo, Dunedin

Chow Tong was a residence of Duffers Gully, Cromwell. Photographer - H A Gill, Frederick Street, Dunedin

Chow Wye left Dunedin for Sydney on the "Mokoia" on 8 June 1904. Photographer - T Borrow, Dunedin

Lye Ping Leun left Dunedin for Sydney on the "Mokoia" on 8 June 1904. Photographer - The American Photo Company, Princes Street, Dunedin

Wong Leong left Dunedin on the "Manuka" on 14 January 1901. Photographer - Unknown.

Chou Yung Mo arrived in Dunedin in May 1878. Photographer - The American Photo Company, Dunedin

Chou Yung Mo arrived in Dunedin in May 1878. Photographer - The American Photo Company, Dunedin

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The house m Khyber Pass Road, Auckland, which is occupied by Chinese. It wasin this dwelling where two white girls were found. NZ Truth , Issue 1238, 22 August 1929, Page 5
A Chines" restaurant m Wellington. Here foregather Chinese and, no doubt, opium smuggling is a topic of conversation. NZ Truth , Issue 1242, 19 September 1929, Page 1

Monday, June 13, 2011

Dunedin Wednesday. The steamer Hoi How took the remains of 286 Chinese away to be re-interred in the Flowery Land. It is understood that £9 per body is paid for their conveyance to Hong- Kong. Nelson Evening Mail, Volume XVIII, Issue 188, 9 August 1883, Page 2

Thursday, June 9, 2011


Otago Witness , Issue 2612, 6 April 1904, Page 38


Otago Witness, Volume 21, Issue 2636, 21 September 1904, Page 45


Otago Witness, Volume 21, Issue 2636, 21 September 1904, Page 45

A Chinese musician

Otago Witness , Issue 2518, 18 June 1902, Page 42

Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Purewa Cemetery Map Purewa presents an opportunity to visit a loved one's final resting place in peaceful, park-like surroundings. Purewa's beautiful, well-kept gardens and extensive lawns create an air of solitude and serenity.

For this reason, there is possibly no finer setting for a dignified and moving funeral service than in our beautifully landscaped gardens and well-maintained grounds. Indeed, such aesthetic surroundings provide a fitting memorial to a loved one.

In 1889, the Anglican Church established Purewa Cemetery through a gift of land. The cemetery still remains one of the Anglican Church's most important assets. The tranquil surroundings of this 45 acre cemetery are now administered by the Purewa Cemetery Trust Board.

Purewa is a testament to our city's more recent past. Wandering over the slopes and tree filled expanses, visitors will see the ranks of plaques and headstones that are monuments to some of the great and memorable personalities who are part of Auckland's history.

Our cemetery is maintained to the highest standard. Ongoing maintenance and upgrading procedures ensure that Purewa remains the premier cemetery in Auckland. This cemetery is the final resting place for over 45,000 men, women and children, including many of Auckland's notable business and political leaders, clergy and V.C. holders.

The cemetery is only a 15 minute drive from Auckland's central business district.

Waikumete - Auckland

For those of you looking for family at Waikumete - here's a map of the layout to help you get an idea of where they are.,380034.0.html

The old Chinese graves are bottom left hand corner, area 1, between Hebrew and Wesleyan. Note the still born area
KWEI/CHIH (Chinese Consul for New Zealand). NZ Truth , Issue 410, 3 May 1913, Page 5
It is a merciful provision that allows one Chinaman to every hundred tons. Let us hope they will make deck cargo of them. Observer, Volume XV, Issue 824, 20 October 1894, Page 12
HAVING HIS MIDDAY SPELL: A CHINAMAN CRADLING ON THE BANKS OP THE MOLYNEUX, AT ALEXANDRA. (Photos by G-uy.) Otago Witness , Issue 2689, 27 September 1905, Page 46
THE HOUSE IN HAINING STREET. WELLINGTON, IN FRONT OP WHICH THE CHINAMAN, YUNG, WAS SHOT. (Photos by J. H. Daroux.) Otago Witness , Issue 2690, 4 October 1905, Page 45
Chinaman's luck. Go-Wrong: Plenty bad luck me now. Welly bad Empleaa. Makee much killee blishchin. Allight, Empleaa. China Welly bad poor colonial Chinaman. No selee wegetable, n o getee penshun. Allee same starve. Observer, Volume XX, Issue 1126, 28 July 1900, Page 3
THE CHINAMAN SHOOTING CASE— SKETCHES IN THE MAGISTRATE'S COURT New Zealand Free Lance, Volume VI, Issue 275, 7 October 1905, Page 11
press association. AUCKLAND, November 4.

Fourteen Chinese -were charge at the Police Court to-day with gardening on Sunday. Ah Napier, for the defence, contended that the men were engaged in a work of necessity. They were not digging new if 1 ground or engaged in the various ways of the market gardener, but were taking up vegetables. They were engaged by Ah Chee who had something like fifty contracts to fill early Monday morning to various steamers and clubs, and it was impossible to carry out the work except by raising the vegetables on Sunday. He considered it would be Sabbatarianism run mad, much as he respected the Sabbath, to make it criminal to perform so necessary a work. Decision was reserved. Hawera & Normanby Star, Volume LIII, Issue 9480, 5 November 1907, Page 7

Monday, June 6, 2011

Thomas Quoi 1895

Observer, Volume XV, Issue 856, 25 May 1895, Page 12

Saturday, June 4, 2011


The returns for the counties of Eden and Manukau and islands of the Hauraki Gulf were completed last evening by Mr John King, census enumerator, and assistants. Compared with the returns for 1891, the Auckland borough Bhows an increase of 2,650, Parnell borough 462 and Newmarket borough 343. The Onehunga borough shows a decrease of 11. In some portions of Arch Hill and the Mount Eden Road districts seme of the population had to be transferred to the City of Auckland. This was necessary on account of those districts being in the City of Auckland electorate.

Chinese population is as follows .-— Borough of Auckland (including 5 females) 49 Borough of Parnell (including 1 woman) 23 Borough of Newton 9 Borough of Newmarket 18 Arch Hill 11 Total .110 Auckland Star, Volume XXVII, Issue 130, 4 June 1896, Page 2
An unsual scene was enacted in the office of Mr J. Lswson, Official Assignee in Bankruptcy, thia morning, when a meeting the creditors took place in the estate of Ah Chong market gardener, of Epsom, a banrupt. The following Chinese creditors were present : Mong Chee, Ah Kow, aod Ah Ong (gardenera of Epsom and Newmarket), Harry Wong (agent Wakefeld - Street), Ah Cbee market gardener, Mechanics Bay), Ah Kew Queen St merchant), and Pon Hing(secured creditor), of Mount M, gardener; The total debts unrated, were stated to be £250 16s lOd, the secured creditor's amount being £121 3s

A squabbling in a corner of the room revealed the fact that a couple of fowls were tied up there in a kit ready for the lighter accessary for the taking of a iie oath.

Mr E C Beale appeared for the debtor, Chong, Mr Cotter for Pon Hing, and Mr. Hesketh for Ah Chee. T. Quoi (Mas interpreter. It was proposed to examine Pon Hing, is secured creditor, on oath, and Mr Hesketh asked that he shouid he put on In the orthodox Chinese style by the biting off of a cock's head. Auckland Star, Volume XXVII, Issue 274, 18 November 1896, Page 5



A Chinese burial is of such infrequent occurrence in Auckland that the funeral of a young Chinese woman, which took place on Wednesday afternoon lash, aroueed considerable curiosity. The deceased waa a relative of Ah See, about 23 or 24 years of age, and she was buried as nearly as possible in conformity with Chinese custom. The corpse was dressed in a shroud of white liberty silk, made at the D.I.C, with a new frill round the neck and gathered in at the waist, and deposited in a coffin. The coffin was placed in a hearse and taken to Waikomiti at the fastest possible speed consistent with safety. Behind the hearse there were live carriages, the foremost occupied by a female relative of the deceased and the remaining carriages by Chinamen. As the cortege passed along the road fragments of rice paper were thrown broadcast to propitiate the erode on behalf of the deceased. On arrival at Waikomiti the coffin was deposited in a grave without ceremony, and after it had been covered large quantities of rice and other food were placed on top of the grave to keep the departed from starvation during the journey she had undertaken for another world. Auckland Star, Volume XXII, Issue 94, 24 April 1891, Page 3


"OFF WITH HIS HEAD." An Interview With a Chinese High Executioners,

I once visited Canton with some companions, and, of course, we did the sights there. We visited pagodas and temples galore, silk factories, an artificial duck-egg hatching company's premises, jade and ivory shops, pawn shops, cat and dog butchers' shops, and the city water-clock, all of which have been "done" and described before, times innumerable. Dur ing our mc-inderings in the city our ears were assailed with the Cathay synonym of the Egyptian bakseesh cry, till the caverns of our brains resounded and echoed with it. " Cumshaw! cumshaw!" yelled by immature possessors echoed the sound wherever we went. -When the youngsters' requests were not complied Trith, they, after a little, invariably changed their cry to "Fanc[uai! fanquai!" (foreign devil, foreign devil). We marched into the magisterial yamun to the accompaniment of the cumshaw' tune. Here were shown the instruments whereby bamboo chow is given to the nadal callosities of the wicked, also ratans and short bludgeons for slappingtbe face of untruthful witnesses, thumb-screw's and racks for exacting confessions (no criminal can be executed according to the laws of China until he has confessed his crime), canquls, a species of collar which foirlargeness and imcomfortableness even outstrip the masher's, and which are rectangular planes df wood with neck and hand holes. The gloomy, small depository-room of these torture- implements we thought to be a fair representation of what a European mediaeval chamber of justice has been.

We were next taken in our sedan; chairs through an overcrowded busy part of the city to the execution ground, passing on our way the new Roman Catholic Cathedral, whose gigantic spires pierce the clouds. The execution ground we found to be a small enclosed rectangular space, about fifteen yards by fifty, entered by a gate. On the right on entering ran a row of small squalid houses, the habitation of potters whose lough, unbaked work lay all abouton the ground, drying 1 in the sun, but we were informed that it was cleared away when an execution was about to take place. Facing the potters' houses was a high wall, at whose base, and leaning against it, were some large crocks, all of which had their mouths earthed over except one. Here' our guide introduced us to three poorly-dressed Chinamen, whom we noticed gambling at a fan tan table near the gate on our 'arrival. One, a big, brutish-lookingfellow with avillainous cast in one of his eyes, was the hfead executioner, and the other two, who were smallish men were his assistants. Through our guide we told the head executioner that we wished to see the instruments of his calling, and thereon he produced a short, very heavy two-handled sword and a long knife. The following conversation was carried on between' us and this "boss" through' the medium of our guide:—

How; do you use this sword ? Where is the block?"—-"We don't use a block. What we do is to make the prisoners kneel down in two rows facing one another, and bending their head down. Then I take the sword, and chop, chop, one on each side, and the heads fall off;; so on, till they're all done, as you'd switch the tops off green weeds with your walking-stick." '

" But you don't always chop a head off with one blow ?"—" Always." . "What is the knife for?"—" For the ling che or death by many cuts. We tie the culprit who is condemned to this death to that cross there (pointing to two rough unbarked sticks roughly crossed),, and. we commence by cutting off the eyelids, ears, nose, and so on, ending by sticking the knife into the heart. The cuts vary in number from eight to a hundred and twenty, according to the seriousness of the culprit's crimes.". "What class of criminals are condemned to the ling che?" Parricides,matricides, and women who have killed and mutilated their husbands form the majority." "Do the executions interfere with your appetite and sleep ? The three executioners grinned sardonically at this question, so we asked : " How many persons have you executed in a day ?" " I have chopped twenty heads off myself in two minutes. See that darklooking place on the ground over there ? that's caused by the blood of the last batch we had." . " What is done with the bodies .-?' " The friends take the bodies away, but we keep the heads in the crocks over by the wall there, and when we have a large number which are no longer identifiable, Aye bury them. Would you like to see some of the heads ?" We declined, and one of my companions began to grow pale and complain of hot feeling well, so wo ordered the guide to lead us away. " Gentlemen, give twenty cents each, cumshaw, to the executioners," said the guide,vwhich we gladly did to escape from the staring of the " boss " butcher's swivel eye ; and so ended our interview with these High Executioners of the Great Chinese Empire. Auckland Star, Volume XVIII, Issue 148, 25 June 1887, Page 2



China is the great slave country of the world. There are 10,000,000 human beings, mostly girls and women, in servitude. China has 400,000,000 inhabitants; and there is scarcely a Chinese family of means in Hongkong, Canton, Macao, or Amoy, but possesses one or more slave girls.

Girls are sold at any age from three to fifteen, and most commonly at seven or eight. The prices range from £2 upwards, according to age and beauty. Most of the girls are bought to work about the house. It is cheaper to buy a servant than to hire one.

In sales a clause is often put in the agreement that the girls are not to be resold for improper purposes. If not, their masters can do as they, please.

Theoretically there are no slaves in Hongkong, as it is British territory, but in reality the city is full of them. They are the maid-servants and nurses of the Chinese. It is not uncommon to find from twenty to thirty slaves in a single family. A gaily dressed woman may often be seen riding out to visit on the back of a slave girl. The woman's arms are thrown about the neck of the slave, and little Chinese feet peep out of her petticoats behind. A PECULIAR TROUSSEAU. Female slaves are often presents from one man to another, and not infrequently they form part of the bridal outfit. They are commonly bought as secondary -wives, and often as teachers. One mandarin in Canton has four wives, sixteen children, and twentyone slaves. He keeps his family in another province, and recently wrote asking his mother, to send down two of his wives to him, as he was lonely. The. old lady replied that she needed the wives to take care of his sixteen children, and he had better buy two more where he was. The mandarin has decided to do this, and inasmuch as he is anxious that his boys should learn English, he is now looking for an English or American girl.

SLAVE-GROWING A TRADE. The cities of Yangchow and Sucha* are as famous for rearing handsoma girls as is Georgit, in the Caucasus, from where the Sultan's harem is replenished. There are persons in these cities who make a business of raising slavegirls. They have farms where tha .slaves are taught to sing, play upon musical instruments, and acquire other accomplishments. These girls are chiefly the daughters of poor people, or the daughters of slaves. It is common in China for a man to purchase his wife. Indeed, there are more wives acquired in this w ray than in any other. Every man in China hats a* right to as many wives as he can maintain, and a secondary wife is cheaper than a hired servant. The first wife is the legal one, but the others have their rights, although they are practically slaves. Such women are usually well treated, and if their masters are rich they may, have slaves of their own. The standing of the secondary wife in the household is largely at the caprice of the master, although she is supposed to Have no voice in the management of affairs, and cannot' even control Tier own children. Sometimes her lot is a sad one. There are cases in which wives &T6 sold, but the act is considered disgraceful. The man who is addicted to the opium habit will sell his children, and not infrequently his wife to supply his appetite. Wives aresometimes*sold also by gambling husbands, being put up on the turn of a card, or the rake-out of the cash at fan-tan. A case of this kind recently happened at Pekin, says "Science Siftings," but the wife forestalled the brutal design by taking her own life* A COMJC AUCTION". Dr. Coleman, one of the professors of the university at Pekin, tells the story of a Judge Yuan, of the district of Chinanfu. This Judge attempted the reformation of his" district, and ordered that all the questionable women of the town be brought to his palace, to be sold for wives to bachelors. The sale attracted a great crowd. An. old farmer picked out a stout, hearty woman of forty. ' "Weigh her!" said the Judge, and screaming and kicking she was put on the scales. "Ninety catties," said tb< weigher. "But how much a catty?" asked the farmer. "What is the price of pork to-day?" "Ninety cash a. catty." "Then sell them at ninety cash," ordered the Judge. The farmer paid about eighteen shillings for his wife. There are slave brokers in all the larg-e Chinese cities. The starvation which now prevails in Northern China will cause many parents to sell their children. With some it will be a question of allowing them to starve or selling them. Think of buying a baby for teripence! This is the price which one of the infant asylums of Shanghai pays for them. The asylum is a missionary institution, and the children are reared surrounded by Christian influences, and when they arrive at the proper age are given respectable Imsbands. In buying slaves the broker often takes them on trial, just as you would take a horse. He wants to find out if the animals arc healthy and sound. There arc many lepers all over China, and in the first stages the disease is hard to detect. One method is to examine the slave in a dark room under a blue light. If this shows that the. skin is of greenish tinge the slave is all right, but if the tinge is reddish it is regarded as a sign of leprosy.

Auckland Star, Volume XXXII, Issue 70, 23 March 1901, Page 9



Thomas Quoi is one of tho most intelligent of all the Chinese in this part of tho colony. He is a shrewd business man, and talks English like a native. He also takes a keen interest in fche welfare of his brother Chinamen, and is looked up to by them as an authority in most matters. He runs sixpenny dining-rooms at the lower end of Queen -street, and receives a large umount of patronage. Quoi is married to an Auckland girl, and Mrs Quoi appears to transact the office business, while her husband superintends the culinary department. The dining rooms are scrupulously clean, and the attendants aro obliging and active. All this was taken in at a glance when our reporter called upon tho proprietor yesterday afternoon, and something else was also observed. Ab the rear of the dining rooms there stood a perambulator, evidently a product of local industry, but the juvenile Quoi was not visible. In fche office, where fche reporter was introduced to Mrs Quoi, were a handsome piano and a variety of ornaments. Mrs Quoi is a musician.

Tho reporter did not call upon Mr and Mrs Quoi to pry into their business and private afiairs, however. He wanted some information on the Chinese question, as it is now rather unpleasantly forced upon us, and he went to the right shop.

THE TE ANAU'S CONSIGNMENT. Can you tell me something about the Chinese influx? asked the reporter as he sat comfortably at a table with note-book spread open. Oh, yes, replied the obliging Thomas, I can do that. Do you know anything aboub tho 100 Chinese coming by the Te Anau ? No; I know nothing about them. I heard about it. Do you-think any of them are coming to Auckland ? Not to my knowledge, and I generally hear when any new chums aro coming out. Do you know that the Chinee are likely to be prevented from landing in the colonies? Well, now, look here (laughing). The Europeans are frightened that more Chinese should come here, ain't they . Yes.

And our peoplo more so. I see, a fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind. I suppose there's not enough work for the Chinamen already in the colony, ls that so.


That's so. Tho few Chinese that are here now can barely get a living, How many Chinese are there in Auckland ?

About 100.How are they employed ?At gardening principally. What do they earn by gardening as a rule ?

They used to earn on an average from £2 to £3 a week." Now they do not earn 10s. The new chums will fare badly then, I reckon.

They cannot a living if they do come out. Tho Chincse at Arch Hill are in a very bad state just now. They aro not earning tucker. How is it that Chinese work is so much cheaper than Europeans? . As gardeners they work harder. They work from daylights to dark—they do not look at the clock to see when it is time to stop. You cannot get Europeans to work in gardens. The job is not good enough for them. They would rather loaf about the streets hungry. I know of it in my own business. Europeans come to me time after time, say they are starving, and that they will work willingly for three meals a day and their board. And I suppose you give them a chance at that?

Yes, and when I give them a show they work two days and then they are full up. How long have you been in the colonies ? About sixteen years. You have made your fortune, have you not?

I lost £1,400 in the Metropolitan Club. You refer to the dining-rooms in Victoria streets East ?

Yes. I was doing well when I shut out the public, and let some gents rent the place. I was to get £21 for the diningroom and £7 a week rental for the building, but I never got as many shillings. It was not a success. THE POLL TAX. Now, said the reporter, what abou tthe poll tax ? I see £10 a head won't keep your people out. Neither will £20 or £30 or Oh, but £100 has been suggested. I suppose that would be a clincher? No: £100 would not keep the Chinese out if they want to come here. And yet you say the Chinese are starving in the colony ? That will not be for long, and times may get better. But if the Chinese can raise these large sums of money, why. do they not stay at home and enjoy themselves ? Some of them have to clear out, you see.

What! criminals?

No ! Not criminals. No criminals have come to the colonies—well, except one or two.

Why have they to leave China then ? Well, I'll tell you. In China there are powerful people that come of distinct races. If one tribe is stronger than the other then the weaker must suffer. These weaker ones are so persecuted that they prefer to come to the colonies to get greater liberty. Then some of your immigrants may be moned men ?

Yes, a great many that como out to Australia and New Zealand have heaps of money and come out here to start business. Then where does the criminal class immigrate to ? Not to the colonies, but to some place near Honolulu — I forgot the name ; these people are mostly slaves bound in Hong Kong, and they go away 200 or 300 at a time in vessels. You'll only find one of these in New Zealand. In Auckland ?. No; atOtaki. Ho is frightened to go home. Well, let's get back to the poll-tax. I think it is a mistake. Why ? Because, as I said before, no tax will keep the Chinese out if they want to come here. RATHER SELFISH. What would you suggest; yourself now ? Why not say that no Chinese shall come to the colony ? I'm afraid you are selfish, Quoi: Well, you say there are too many here now. Well, stop it. You object to the poll-tax ? I think it is very wrong altogether. England and China are supposed to be friendly nations. England is a clever nation —I call her a clever rogue. How is this, Mr Quoi ? We do not require to be protected from Europeans in China. We do not stop them coming into China with a £10 poll tax.
A very good argument Mr Quoi. But Europeans do not work so desperately cheap that you Chinese cannot get a living do they? Since the tax was raised to £10 a head in 1880 or 1881 thousands of Chinese have come to New Zealand and Australia.

How does a poor Chinaman manage to emigrate ?

Oh people can raise money at heme, and pay it back after they come out. They have clubs at home for that purpose. But if they starve here how are they going to pay then' money back ? Well, that game is played out now, lt only means starvation for new chums.


Do you know anything about these false naturalisation papers?

Yes, that's worked right enough. I blamo tho Custom-house officers. They're not smart enough.

But Custom-house officers find a difficulty in distinguishing one Chinaman from an other, you see. Nonsense ! You tell me that if I went home any other Chinamen could come out here under my name ?

Probably not, because you. talk first class English. And every Chinaman that goes home can talk some English. The Chinamen that comw out are nearly all brand new chums.

Well, how would you trip the swindlers up? I would ask them a few questions—what part of the colony thoy were in before, what people they knew there, and if thoy could not give sensible answers in English I would know that they were cheats. I know one set of naturalisation papers that went from here to China and back again three times. Every timo I expected the newchum to be collared, but he got in safe enough, and nobody was more surprised than myself. I'm afraid we'll have to keep you all out. Well, suppose all the Chinamen leave the colony, you'll find you'll be ten times worse off than you are now. You would not be able to buy a bit of greenstuff for lovo or money—the Europeans will not grow it. A few years ago you had tpay 4s and 5s for a dozen of cabbages; now you can get a dozen for ls, or even 6d.


People say, continued Mr Quoi, that Chinamen are no good. They say that Chinamen are dirty. Good heavens! I have seen some English families, and, by Jove, I was disgusted. I have seen such dirty people amongst the Maoris and amongst the Europeans that I could hardly credit it. I have seen Europeans living in a houso with fowls in one corner, a pig in another, and the people looked as if thoy did not wash themselves once in twelve months. One day I was out shooting in the country near ,and I became very hungry, 1 went into a farmhouse, and the people were so dirty that I could not oat with them. I went out into a field and made a meal on turnips. You'll find dirty peoplo in all classes. Once you give a dog a bad name "—you know the rest —everybody goes for him and gives him a kick. The Chinaman has got a bad name.


"You hear people say," continued Mr Quoi, " Why don't Chinamen settle down and get married and spend their money in the country?" Chinamen have to pay their rent like other people, they have to buy clothes and tucker— is that not spending their money ? And why will they not marry in the colonies? I'll tell you. Suppose a Chinaman gets acquainted with a nice European girl and he says to himsolf, " I'd like to marry that girl." He goes out with her for a walk, and all her friends jeer and laugh at her, and make her ashamed. How can a Chinaman get a wife when people act like that ? Tho reporter "gave it up," and having obtained all that he wanted from Mr Quoi bade that courteous gentleman adieu. Auckland Star, Volume XIX, Issue 106, 5 May 1888, Page 5

Friday, June 3, 2011

2) A Chinese hydraulic elevating claim in Spec Gully, Naseby. Otago Witness , Issue 2454, 27 March 1901, Page 33
1) A Chinese hatter on the Molyneux River. The cradle is placed on a tongue of rock projecting into the yellow stream, which forms the background. Otago Witness , Issue 2454, 27 March 1901, Page 33
GIVE A DOG A BAD (CHINESE) NAME AND HANG HIM John Chinaman: Welly bad Klittian law this. Ohineseman buy Eulopean dog. Then he dog get called Chinaman, bitee Klietian man, and fined like helee. Observer, Volume XXIII, Issue 34, 9 May 1903, Page 17

Observer, Volume XXIX, Issue 50, 28 August 1909, Page 12

Thursday, June 2, 2011

Chong Yen Hoon.

Thames Star, Volume xxxix, Issue 9741, 13 September 1900, Page 3