Friday, December 23, 2011



(By Telegraph—Press Association.)AUCKLAND, September 4,

The first group of Chinese refugees brought to New Zealand from war zones by relatives in the Dominion has reached Auckland. The party comprises the wives of eight Chinese resident in New Zealand and several children. A larger party of 70 will reach Wellington shortly, and others are on the way.

Subject to certain conditions, wives of New Zealand-born Chinese are admitted to the country in ordinary times. The present arrivals have been brought to the Dominion by Chinese resident her.c, but not born in New Zealand, under special permits. The refugees will be admitted for a period of two years, subject to the signing of a £500 bond and payment of a deposit of £200, to be forfeited if the conditions laid down are broken. Any children born to refugee wives while in New Zealand must leave at the expiry of the two-year term.

All the refugees in the group which has arrived are from Kwang Tung Province, the majority from the vicinity of Canton.

Many endured great hardship in reaching Hong Kong, whence they embarked for New Zealand via Australia. The journey from Canton to Kowloon, whence the ferry to Hong Kong leaves, normally takes about three hours by train. The refugees, however, had to travel on foot with their children and had to make a wide detour to avoid Japanese forces. Many took 10 days to reach Hong Kong. Even then difficulty was found in securing steamer accommodation, as all vessels leaving Hong Kong are crowded.

Several of the party on reaching New Zealand still showed signs of the privations they had suffered. Only two families will remain in Auckland; the others will go to relatives in various parts of the North Island.

Evening Post, Volume CXXVIII, Issue 57, 5 September 1939, Page 16

Thursday, December 22, 2011

New burial plots, and exhumation of skeletal remains.

Though he is largely illiterate, he is a very likable fellow, and never pretends to be anything but a simple village peasant farmer. He no longer works on the land. His new calling is repairing or making new burial plots, and exhumation of skeletal remains. We ask him what are the kind of things he would find in the graves. He says there are usually gold rings, jade bracelets, and earrings. Sometimes, a pearl may be found in the jaws of the skull. Jade bracelets attain rich colours after a long period buried underground with the dead, and are said to possess special qualities which repel evil spirits. They are very much in demand.

Normally, the hirers want the burial items returned. Others are quite happy for the grave exhumers to keep them. On one occasion, he and his helpers were excavating the grave of a village clan's progenitor. The grave dated back to the Ming Dynasty, and in it were three exquisite porcelain wine goblets. Two of his helpers kept one each, the third one was given to another helper who asked for it, and gave him a small sum . The goblets would fetch big bids in any auction house.

He makes no secret that he had a good year this year. He made about RMB 60,000 or close to US$10k. He hires migrant labourers if the job is too big for one man. He says fellow village labourers demand equal share of the profits. For the migrant workers, he pays them an agreed amount, plus lunch, dinner or foot massage treats for a job well done. Most hirers also hand out red packets to all. (Doug L - on a recent visit to his home turf)

Sunday, December 18, 2011

Chinese Influence on Cromwell

Chinese settlement in New Zealand

Following the departure of thousands of European miners for goldfields in Marlborough and the West Coast, the Otago Provincial Council in 1865 invited Chinese working on the Victorian goldfields, to rework the Otago goldfields.

Most originated from Kwangtung Province in South China – an area which had social turmoil caused by the opium wars, over-population, poverty, banditry, clan fighting, natural disasters and epidemics. There were many incentives to emigrate, and gold provided the stimulus.

There have been three phases of Chinese settlement in New Zealand. The first period covers 1865 to 1900, when the Chinese regarded themselves as temporary visitors seeking gold. They tended to have little interaction with Europeans.

The second phase covers the period from 1900 to 1952 when they were regarded as aliens in the land, and were occupied principally on market gardens, fruit shops or laundries. The last phase from 1952 relates to their present assimilation and increasing absorption into the general New Zealand community.

The NZ-Chinese population peaked at 5000 about 1880. Virtually all were men, and goldminers. This can be compared with the 100,000 who settled in California, and 50,000 who settled in Australia during the 1850’s.

Because they were late arrivals they were obliged to rework old mining claims abandoned by the Europeans. Generally they were content to work for a steady return rather than chase the elusive bonanza.

Book & Print in New Zealand

Statistics of New Zealand (1866) record a total of 534 letters from Hong Kong in the Otago mail. The texts of a few family letters have survived and been printed: for example, Don printed translations of four family letters, including one from the leper Kong Lye to his mother (New Zealand Presbyterian, 1 October 1884). A boxful of envelopes, some containing letters regarding the Cheong Shing Tong's first exhumation (completed in 1884) was found in a shed in Sew Hoy's store, Dunedin, in 1992. The envelopes had fascinating chop imprints, in various artistic forms enclosing the name. In his diary Don has described other Chinese letters; he also collected 'queer addresses' from mail sent to him by the Post Office to decipher (see his Diary 1899-1907, items 334, 408 and 442, etc.).

Gravestones may also be included as print culture. Chinese examples were usually inscribed in Chinese, bearing the name, county and village of origin, and the time and date of death. The earlier gravestones dated the year by the emperor's reign. Sometimes the name and date of death were added in roman script. The Chinese also used wooden grave markers, but none remain, and many gravestones have been vandalised or illegally removed. The last Chinese to die on the goldfields were probably buried in paupers' unmarked graves, but many others are unaccounted for. The Dunedin Genealogical Society has drawn and recorded in a booklet the Chinese gravestones in the Southern Cemetery, Dunedin. Mrs B. Hayes has photographed the Cromwell Chinese graves (private collection), and Len Smith likewise those at Naseby (Hocken Library).

Saturday, December 17, 2011

Wong Yung Leung

Melbourne- late 19th century, 2 Australian-born children returned to China in about 1906. Their father died in Australia. They lived with their father's first wife in Bakshek from 1906 until at least 1913. Did the children remain in China, returned to Australia, or possibly went to NZ. Their Australian mother made attempts to have them repatriated to Australia.

In Australia, the family went by the surname Wer Lee or Wir Lee.

Details of the family:
Father: Wong Yung Leung
Chinese wife: Lau Ching
Australian wife and children's biological mother: Beatrice Wer Lee (nee Nicholson, later Denham)
Son: Wong Fung Chai
Daughter: Wong Fung Lan

Brother of Wong Yung Leung (but different mothers): Wong Sai Hing
Wong Sai Hing ran a timber shop (On Lee) in Bakshek (c1913).

Brother of Wong Yung Leung: Wong Loi To
Wong Loi To ran a general store in Melbourne (c1913).

If you would like to see the characters for their names, go to:

email kate.bagnall[at]

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Rex Vs Ah John,

Ah John was charged with having sold two tickets in a pakapoo lottery at Grey-* month on the 10th July last. Accused pleaded not guilty.

Mr Park prosecuted and Mr Joyce, with him Mr Beare, appeared for the defence

The following jury was empannelled,— J W Dale, W J Cooper, E A Well?, W Wall, 0 Howard, J Forsytb, H Preston, A Michel, J Hills, A Bradley. P Hines, and W H Teague. Mr E A Wells was chosen foreman.

Mr Park challenged W Weiblotr, J Schroder, M MoFayden, A J Ward, J H Eisfelder, R Thompson, R Heslan, and C Toobey. Mr Joyce challenged J King A Cederman, IT J Nightengale.' J Mitchell A E Benjamin, and E Mabin.

Mr Park opened up tbe case detailing the circumstances of the purchase of tbe, tickets. He called— Charles O'Loughlin, carpenter, of Grey mouth, who deposed he knew 'the accused by sight. On the 10th July last he purchased two pakapoo tickets from ths aocus?d. Paid 64 each for them. The tickets were on tbe next lottery. It was about 8 25 p m when he got the t ckefcg, A man named Joe Harrison was present wtfen witness got the tickets. When on the way to accused's placo to see whether he had got a priza he was arrested for drunkenness. Did uot draw any prize Had purchased tickets fiom accused a omple of times before. Hid no doubt as to bis identity. Was also sure as to Harrison being presenjt. By Mr Joyce— Was' giving in Greyjabuth about two months before the 10 h of July, It was after dark when he bought (be tickets. Thought kerosene light was burning in the jQhjnaman's room.. Had bad a few drinks wben he bought the ticketß, but knew what he was doing. There were more £ban $ye Europeans presen£ when he purchased tbe tickets, and a number of Chinamen.

George Edward Harrison, bricklayer's labourer,Greymouth deposed he knew Ah John's premises in Mackay Street, Greymouth. Remembered tbe 10 th July last. Saw the previous witness there on tbe evening of that day and saw him purchase two tickets.

In cross examination witness declined jto answer the .education whether he had been convicted under jbbe name of David Sband o£ theft and sentenced jto two years, ,or whether bg b&d come from a mill near Hokitikp to Gtosyiaout& about five moatbs ago.

Constable Lsrmer deposed to arriving O'Loughlin for drunkenness on lltb and wben searching him ip tbe usual way foaod the lw» lottery tickets in his posewsioo. On tn§ following morning O'Loughlin pointed oat accused m th* matvwho sold bim tbe tickets, but aocused denied having' sold the tickets. It was generally known that pakapoo tickets can be obtained at accused's place.

By Mr Beare— lt was not a fact that O'Longhlin on the morning he was arrested went first to the European Hotel before pointing oat sccused's placg as the place where the ticket! were purchased. Had been several time 3in the place and warned accused not to, sell any tickets. Did not know whether tbe place was used m ft boarding house. Accused was a married man and did not live in the bouse, but generally came to it every morning.

Re-examined, witness said aecobed was i lentified immediately by O'Laugblin as the man who Bold the tickets

Detective Campbell corroborated the evidence of the previous witness*

By Mr JJeare— He bad fever purchased |ny pakepoo tickets, bat knew the principle of the lotterie Had been in Ah John's house on many occasions, but there jrere no Europeans present then. Mr Beare raised the pcjnfc whether the purchase pf the tickets involved a game of chance or a lottery. He quoted a camber of preoed nis.

His Honour said he would lo reserve the point. Mr Joyce addressed the Court. He stated that these two men -.entered the accused's house on the date mentioned and evidence would be called to show there rere no other Europeans present at the time, and Ah John was also not present He called Lcm Woo miner of Marsden, wh» remem bered the month of July last. Was in Ah John's place early in the month of July. Remembered two Europeans being there. Did not know them, but would know them if be saw the». Witness identified O'Longhlin in Court as the man he saw in Ah John's house. There was another man with him, but Ah John was not present when the two Europeans were there. By Mr Park O'Loogblih asked for Ah John, They bad been selling tickets for a long time, but none had been sold since the last trouble. Did not see anyone sell a ticket to O'Longhlin. The day was the 7th July; To Hit Honour— Was present the whole time the Europeans were in Ah John's. Did not see who sold them the tickets. Lung Ghee, laundryman, knew Ah John and was in bis place on the 7th July this year. Be saw one European come into the place on the oooasion mentioned. Mr Joyce addressed the jury. He stated that the charge was one of selling pakjpoo tickets to O'Loughlin on the 10th July. In order to establish the fact that this was a lottery, according to Mr Justice Williams, it was necessary that the tiokets should be marked by the aeller acd that a dnplisate should also be marked by him. They had Lougblins evidence that he did not see the tickets marked when they were sold to him. O'Looghlin bad some drink before going to the Chinaman's and it was doubtful whether be had ever purchased the ticket at Ab John's, or whether be knew where be bad purchased them. Counsel traversed the evidence of the witness Harrison, etating it was utterly untrustworthy, while that tendered by the polite did not help the jury at all. They had the cvidenoe of the two Chinese witnesses, wbo said that Ah John was not present when the licketa were sold. The jury most be certain that Ah John and no one else had sold the ticket*. He wcnld leave the case with the jury, and if there was any doubt in.their minds they should give the accused the benefit of it.

His Honour, in camming up, ssid they had tbe evidence of two Europeans and tbe indisputable evidence of the documents, ss against that of one Chinese. To his mind there no donbt that the tickets had been sold by someone to O'Loughlin, and most probably by the proprietor of tbe establishment. Becacse Harrison bad apparently been in trouble it was no reason to discount bis evidence, and then there was the evidenoe of O'Longblin. Against tbat they had only the evidence of Lum Woo. He gave evidence that nobody bad sold the tickets to O'Loughlin and that statement was absurd. There was not the slightest reliance to be paced in this man's evidence in any way whatever. They would retire and consider their verdict.

The jury retired at 6 p.m. They were looked ap for four hoars, and being unable to agree, were discharged, His Honour has ordered a fresh trial for today. West Coast Times , Issue 13960, 22 September 1906, Page 3


POLICE COURT, LAWRENCE. (Before Messrs J. Thompson and T. Pijling, J's.P.) Saturday, 10th July, 1897. INSUFFICIENT MEANS OF SUPPORT. Police v. Martha Smeaton. Mr Dalziell for accused. Sergeant M'Kay conducted the prosecution. This case had been adjourned from the previous day for production of evidence in support of accused' 3 statements as to hei means of livelihood. S-Tgeant M'Kay re-called Martha Smeaton, who, ia cross-examination, stated that she made thePunderclotbing and socks of her sister's boy. She had made him two pairs of socks and two shirts in the two months he had I been living with her. The boy sometimes went down to Ah Lun's hut. She had received a sentence of two months' hard labor for vagrancy. That waa 14 years ago. i

Mr DdlzieJl, lor ihe defence, called Joe Lam, cl"rk in th« Chinese store, who, through an interpreter, deposed to giving accused washing. Had paid her from 2jto2s Cd & week. Had sometimes paid her 2^ 6d for one week, and then sometimes* a fortnight would elapse before he gave her any more money. He had never stopped in accused's house.

J. Chow Vie deposed that accused sometimes washed his clothes for him. Sometimes gave the accused Is Gd for a week's washing, but sometimes he washedjor himself. Sometimes he gave her '2s for a week's washing. That was when he had not time to do his washing himself. She sometimes did not wash for him for two weeks or more.

Shing Shang Loo, who described himself as a doctor and boarding-housekeeper, residing at the Chinese Camp, deposed giving accused sheets, blankets, and other thiogs for washing. Sometimes gave her ss sometimes Cs every week. Kept a cook-shop and lodginghouse. The man living with him was too old to clean out his house. Had three rooms aud five beds. Gave accused sometimes 6 pieces to wash.

Ah Vow, cookshop keeper, Chinese Camp, having been sworn on a lighted match, said he gave accused washing, sometimes so much one week and sometimes so much another week. He sometimes a&ve her Is and sometimes 2s for a week's washing.

Chum Lum, miner, Chinese Camp, the father of the mphew of accused, paid accused 7s 6d for the keep of his son. Paid her this every Monday. He bought clothes for his son.

Sergeant M*Kay called as rebutting evidence, Clara Ann Thomas, residing at the Chinese Camp, who deposed that accused had been living there for 15 months. Had never seen accused doing any other washing except her own. Accused had asked witness to do washing for 4s a day and her food. Accused had also got Mrs Fordtll to do her washing. Shing Shang Loo had an old man doing his washing. Accused had done somu washing about six months ago for Shing Shang Loo, but had not seen her doing any since. Chow Vie did his washing himself and witness could see him at work, as his yard was quite close to hers. He also borrowed witness's tubs. Witness did Mong Que's washing not accused. Witness also washed for Mrs Ah Ying. Accused did not. Accused's house was frequented by a number of young men, Europeans, late at night. Had slept in accused's house, and had seen a Chinaman coming out of accused's room. Witness was not on friendly terms with accused. Had laid an information against accused some time ago but she had withdrawn the charge, paying all the costs, because of her old acquaintance with accused. The Chinamen gave 3s 6d for the washing of a whole suit. It »vas not every day a Chinaman got his washing done. Flannels, shirts, and pants were charged for at the rate of 4d each, but a white shirt was worth 6d.

This closed the evidence.

The Bench decided that they could not convict accused as it had not been proved that she had insufficient means of support. They had weighed the evidence of the Chinese witnesses very carefully and had been forced to the conclusion that a certain amount of credibility should be attached to it. The police had made oat a very strong case, but the evidence of the father of the boy that he gave accused 7s 6d a week and the other men could not be entirely disbelieved. The witness Thomas, who had given rebutting evidence, had admitted that her feelings towards the accused had been the reverse of friendly. The accused would be discharged.
Tuapeka Times, Volume XXVIV, Issue 4463, 14 July 1897, Page 3


(By Telegraph—Press Association.) TAUMARUNUI, December 19. When the evidence for the prosecution had been heard, Olive May Dunn Vow, a Chinese, aged 27, who was charged in the Police Court with the murder of her infant daughter at Taumarunui on December 2, was committed to the Supreme Court at Hamilton for trial. Continuing his evidence, Wang Shi Chang Wai, a fruiterer, said that after November 3 he heard the accused saying to the boy, "Go to the other mother of yours," and she asked one of the men there to take him to his second mother. The accused never used to speak to witness nor he to her. She gave witness black looks. The accused was. friendly with witness's wife. "SHE IS DEAD." On December 2, at 2 p.m., witness's employees were finishing their dinner meal when the accused, came crying down the stairs, saying to her husband, "If you want the girl you had better go up and see her, for she is dead." The accused's husband carried the accused-upstairs arid the police were sent for. In cross-examination witness said there was no truth whatever in statements that the accused's.husband was married to' a white girl. The accused was the type of woman who always wanted to be alone. George, Joe Lum, brother-in-law of the last witness, gave corroborative evidence. Leslie Logan,- baker's assistant, working next door to the premises, where the tragedy occurred, said he had seen the couple together, and they: had always appeared happy and on friendly terms.1 On. one occasion witness saw the accused place her baby girl in a banana-box outside the fence. This happened a month before the tragedy. Nurse Wesch gave evidence that she attended the accused during two confinements in Taumarunui. She was normal and happy therii but was naturally a very reserved woman. Her husband appeared to show her every consideration and kindness. She was unable to speak English. She was entirely dependent on her husband, and witness had never known him to fail her. Margaret Alice Carrington said that shortly before the tragedy occurred the accused's husband called at her shop with his small son and bought cakes for the child. Witness always found the accused friendly. Witness frequently heard the accused crying, but did not think it was crying caused by ill-treatment. Dr.. Welby Fisher described the injuries to the dead child. Death was caused by a hemorrhage following an extensive wound in the neck;' While at the scene.of the tragedy the impression he got was that the accused was suffering from puerperal insanity. EMBRACED HER HUSBAND. Constable McLennan gave evidence that when he arrived on the scene Vow said, "My wife has killed my baby." At the gaol, after her arrest, the accused embraced her husband and was unwilling to be parted from him. The room occupied by the accused was very glean and tidy. Senior-Sergeant Harley gave corroborative evidence, and said that the accused in court today was greatly improved in mental health from: whatshe was on' the day of the tragedy. On behalf of the accused, Mr. Tong pleaded not guilty and reserved his defence. The accused was committed for trial in the Supreme Court at Hamilton. Detective-Sergeant Eobertson said medical evidence regarding the accused's mental condition would be called at the Supreme Court. The adjourned inquest held before Mr. W.. Thomas and a jury was again adjourned sine die.

Evening Post , Issue 149, 20 December 1935, Page 11


THE RELIEF FUND. We have received the following additional subscriptions in aid of tha Kakanui relief fund Already acknowledged £180 5 0 James Ed'-ar x x 0 We are informed that the Chinese residents of ths city and suburbs have decided to make a pyrotechnic display in connection with the Kakanui open-air/irfe next week, that will beboth unique and on a sceJe never before attemptcJ in this part. With that object Mr Sew Hoy has gathered from his compatriots tho following sums:—Sow Hoy, £4 Duck Lee. draper, £1 j Tone Duok, draper. £1; Quie Vow. 10j; John A. Tong, Wi; On Lee, storekeeper! 10s; Meß Wah, storekeeper, 103; Toone Le gardener, 10a; Gow Shte, gardener, 5?; Joe' How, ss; Toong Qaong, greengrocer, 53; Yang Yrog, 53; Yang Joe, 53; Chong Sing, ss; Chow Yee, sj; Lee Mun, 53; Joe Duck and Ah Cheung, 53; Lou Joe, ss; GeeLoy, 3s; Yang Jure, 2s 6d Ho Mo, 2s 6d; Chan Wav, 2.? 6d Kum Soay, 2a Gd; Lum June; 2s Gd: Shine Mong, 2sGd; Yang Hon, 2 3 6d; Chui Mo. 2s Cd; Tong Wing, 2s 6d; Chow Shing,2s; Lou Guk,23; LeeLoy,2s; Sou Tie, 2s. The committee .who have the matter in hand are Duck Lee,draper; Joe How, Walker street; Chone Sing, Walker street; Mca W E b, Staford street- Sou Tie, Walker street-any of horn will gladly receive additional subscriptions. Otago Daily Times , Issue 9048, 25 February 1891, Page 2

Earthquake Relief Fund

The following further donations to the Earthquake Relief Fund are acknowledged by the Mayor:—
Per Waipawa Borough Council, £1 15s Wanganui Collegiate School, £23 ISs 5d- The Pan-Hellenic Association of New Zealand £ 3 12s; Jas. Templeton and Co., £25- E Moore. £5; St. David's Presbyterian Church, Upper Hutt, £0 3s; E. J. Foothead. £5 Appreciative Listener-in, £1; Meek and Hicks 2s; Mrs. A. It. Meek, £2 2s; Listener! kanvarra, 10s; Radio Listeners, 6s 8d H F.J.,- 10s;. Mrs. Alfred Atkinson, £5; staff Billiards, Ltd., £6 ss; A.8.8., 10s; Union Conine Co., Ltd., £10 10s; Wellington East Girls' College, £10; St. Andrew's Church bs 7d; M. Bassin and staff, £2; Coleman and Coleman £2 2s; C G. Powles, £2 2s; Lankshears, Ltd., £5; staff Lank-shears, Ltd., £3; staff Jas. Templeton and Co., £1 12s (id- W B Armstrong £1; additional contribution, concert, £1 7s 2d; per Bed Cross Society L- £1; Mrs L- A- Courtney, £1 is; A Irieud," per G.T., £5 ss; per Wellington Chinese Masonic Society—Kwong long Chong £2 2s. Chung Ling os, Joe Guy 10s Lum Jung, Fan Yue,.Wong Way Chun, Wong Hoy, Chow Torn, Wong Lai, Lowe Ming Geng, Yip Foon, Di Bor, Chun Lerng 5s each, Sink on Kee £1 Is, Ng Sit Lum ss. Chun Gee Nui ss, Chun Shee Choy. £1 Is, Wah Jung ss, Wing IHing ss, Lee Nam os, Chun Hiug Young £1, Isgan GoW os, .Fan Chow Hung ss, Lowe Gee Leong 10s, Terng Wall os, Lowe Hop Poo ss, Lowe Goo Ying. ss, Cherng Gong 2s (id, Wong V-iy ss, Hedley Louis 2s 6d, Chun Bew Nov Mun Chue, Yip Wah, Lowe Hoong Gee, Lowe Gar Shee, Lee noong, Lowe Gong, 5s each Dick Leo £3 3s, Gee Gum King ss, United Fruit Co. 10s 6d, Wong Chung Lung, Wah Ying, Chun Hoy Chorig, Chun Dart Yuc, Shew Say, Chun Garm You 5s each. Hop Hing 10s, Ngah Sik Chong 2s 6d, Wong Kong 10s, Mock Ming ss, Kwong Kee ss,- Chung Dim ss, -Chunt Hoong ss, Wong Poy 10s, Ngan Jew ss, George Yce £1 Is—£23 Is; total, £241 Cs 2d.
The Mayor's Fund totals £10,581. Evening Post, Volume CVIII, Issue 10, 11 July 1929, Page 14



Unique scenes were witnessed at Newtown Park yesterday afternoon, when the local Chinese residents celebrated the tenth anniversary of the proclamation of the Chinese Republic. In business the Chinaman has shown that he can march' with the times; on. the sports field yesterday he demonstrated that he is an athlete of ability. Those who journeyed, to the Park to see the Chinese at play, and they comprised a large crowd, had expected to see sports of quite an unusual character, but they were treated to a programme much on usual lines. There were, however, several novel events. To their friends the Chinese extended hospitality, and did much to make the outing enjoyable for all. The lining up of competitors for the races created a gocd deal of interest. The line-up afforded good material for eager camera-men.

The proceedings opened with addresses by Mr. Wong Tong, president of the Chinese Association, Mr. Ping Ming, a well-known Chinese resident, and the Rev. Y. P. Hi. Each made an appeal to the Chinese to always observe the tenth day of the tenth month. Pleasure -was also expressed at the large attendance of friends.. Among others present were: The newly-appointed Chinese Consul (Mr. Li Kwang Heng), the ex-president of the Association (Mr. J. B. Lum), and Mr. Nl G. Kwong, manager of the "Nan Sing Times." Several of the leading men wore the badge of the party under Dr. Sun Yafc Sen, awarded for services rendered, and bearing the inscription, "Leader of Kuo Nun Tang."

The display of decorations at the Park included the flag of the Republic, with the New Zealand flag on either side, and a streamer bearing the message, "Happiness to the Republic." Two Chinese kites were also a source of attraction.

The Consul was late in arriving, but sent, the following message "To-day is the anniversary day of the establishment of the Republic of China. lam glad to.say that the Chinese subjects in those countries where I have resided celebrated this glorious day enthusiastically, and I am glad to see that the Chinese in this Dominion are doing the same.' I hope that all the Chinese will observe this 10th day of October— the double-tenth festival—as enthusiastically as the Americans observe their memorial day, 4th July. I also hope that such celebration will not merely be considered as a formal one, but will be considered as the day to remind our Chinese of the difficulty of the success of, the great, Republic^. We should therefore unitedly love the country, so that the Government for the people, by the people, and under the people, shall not be perished from the world."

Liberal prizes were awarded- for the sports events, gold and silver medals respectively, for first and second places, and. neckties for third places. The events resulted as follow:—

100 yds, under 14: Raymond Wong Tong 1, Lo Fung Hong 2, Kong Heng 3.

220vds, under 18: L. Tommy 1, Ah Ken 2.

440 yds: C. S. Fong 1, J. Kitchill 2, Joe Yew 3. In this event there was a large field! The winner was ahead at 200 yards, and, showing fine speed, won easily. High Jump: Joe Yew 1, C. S. Fong 2, J. Kitchill 3.

Sack Race: Joe Jong Lun 1, J. Kitchill 2, Jem Lee 3. Two Miles Bicycle Race: James Lowe (Palmerston North) 1, C. S. Fong 2. Jem,-Lee fell,exhausted,,,and Fqng also fell, but recovered. Tug-o'-war: J. B. Lum (captain), Chung Lung, Peter Chen, and Ngan Guy i. Lue Jue, ex-champion boxer, gave exhibitions of shadow-sparring and knife juggling. Refreshments were distributed at the conclusion of the gathering, and "lollie scrambles" provided for the children. 'Much of the success of the celebrations was due to .the work of the secretary, Mr. Matthew Shun.

Evening Post, Volume CII, Issue 88, 11 October 1921, Page 3



Interesting points as to nationality were argued before the Full Court to-day, when a Chinaman, Joe Lum, storekeeper, of Wellington, raised the question in an action between himself and the Attorney- General. On the Bench were the Chief Justice (Sir Robert Stout), Mr. Justice Cooper, Mr. Justice Sim, and Mr. Justice Herdman. Sir John Findlay, K.C., with him Mr. A. de B. Brandon, appeared for Lum, while Sir John Salmond, Solicitor-General, represented the Crown.

The facts of the case are that Joe Lum is an vuinaturhlised Chinese resident of Wellington, who married Chu Ah Nui in New Zealand on 28th November, 1905. Six children have been born in Wellington. Lum is now about to visit China, taking with him his infant children, whom he intends to leave in China for some years for the purpose of being educated in their native tongue. On application to the Customs Department, Lum was informed that unless the children return to the Dominion within four years after registering of their names in accordance with section 2 of the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908, they will not be allowed to land in New Zealand except on payment of the poll-tax of £100, and on passing the test imposed by section 31 and 42 respectively of the Immigration Restriction Act. According to Lum, it is not improbable that circumstances will keep the children in China for longer than four years. The Court was asked for an order interpreting the enactment, and, in particular, determining (1) whether, in the event of a person bom in New Zealand of Chinese parents not nationalised under the Aliens Act, 1908, and leaving New Zealand while an infant, and returning to Now Zealand while still an infant to rejoin his or her parents, poll tax will be payable in respect of these persons (a) if such person complies with the requirements of subsection la of section 2 of the Immigration Restriction Act, 1908, (b) if such person complies with all the requirements of the subsection except the requirements as to return within four.years, (c) if such person fails to comply with any of the requirements of the said subsection; (2) whether, in the event of such person leaving New Zealand while an infant, and returning after attaining 21 years of! age without having renounced or lost his or her British nationality, poll tax will be payable in respect of such person (a)_ if such person complies with the requirements of subsection 1 (a) of section 2 of the Immigration Restriction Act Amendment, 1908, (b) if such person complies with the requirements of the subsection, except the requirements as to l .turn within four years, (c) if such person fails to comply with any of the requirements of-tho subsection.

Sir John Findlay said the central question was whether the children in the case were Chinese. He react the definition attached to the Immigration Restriction Act, and said that these children, having been born in New Zealand, were British subjects. If the action of the Customs Department was upheld it might equally be held that any New Zealander leaving the country might be treated as an immigrant upon his return. Sir John Salmond, K.C. said that his construction of the Act imposed no hardship on anyone. Tho Act contained the fullest power for discretionary exemption in all proper cases. If it was deemed proper to allow a young Chinaman to leave the country and return later without restriction, there was power, under the Amending Act of 1910, to allow him to do so. It must not be understood, however, that he could do this of his own right. In the present case, for instance, these young Chinamen might, by virtue of their education in China, lose all trace of European customs and education, and might return to the Dominion essentially Chinese.

The Court reserved its decision, Evening Post, Volume XCVII, Issue 149, 26 June 1919, Page 8


An interesting case came before the Full Court, at Wellington recently -concerning the admission of Chinese to the Dominion. It was a motion for a declaratory judgment respecting the admission of Chinese children born in New Zealand after being sent to China for education.

The plaintiff in the case was Joe Lum, storekeeper, of Wellington, and the defendant the Attorney-General.The plaintiff was represented by Sir John Findlay, with him Snr A. de B Brandon, and Sir John Salmorid, X.C, appeared on behalf of the Attorney-General. The bench was occupied by the Chief Justice (Sir Robert Stout), Justices Cooper, Sim, and Herdman. "The facts agreed to by the parties were that Joe Lum, a Chinese resident in New Zealand, but not naturalised, was married to a Chinese woman in the Dominion on November 28th, 1905. As issue of the marriage there were six children, all born in Wellington. The plaintiff is about to visit China and take with him his children, the eldest of whom is about 12 years, to be educated in their native tongue. On an application to the Department of Customs, the plaintiff was informed that unless the children returned to New Zealand within four years they would not be allowed to land without the payment of the poll-tax of 1000 and passing the tests required by sections 31, and 42 of the Immigration Restriction Act. It is not improbable that circumstances will keep the children in China for a longer, period than four years. The court was asked for an order interpreting the enactments, concerning the facts disclosed, the principal question involved being whether the poll-tax would be payable for the children even if they returned after four years. In arguing the case, Sir John Findlav contended mainly that the children piiist be regarded as natural-born British subjects. It was absurd, he said that children born in this country who happened to go to China for education should on return be regarded as Chinese immigrants subject to poll-tax. A literal interpretation of the enactments affecting the case would mean a gross hardship. . Sir John Salmond, replying, said there was no hardship possible. The Immigration Restriction Act provided for full discretionary power for exemption in proper cases. These children might, be away for twenty years, educated in the Chinese tongue, thoughts, and habits, and for all practical purposes they would be Chinese. Sir John Findlay: We will have to rely on the generosity of the Solicitor-General, I suppose. Sir John Salmond replied that the matter of discretion would rest with the Minister and the Customs Department. It might be argued that the word "naturalised" in the, enactment had a special legal meaning. It meant the transformation, of an alien into a British subject. The Chief Justice: A natural-born subject should surely have more rights than a naturalised subject? Sir John Salmond observed that there was an express exemption of a naturalised subject, and his contention was that it did not include the natural born. The court reserved judgment in the case. Marlborough Express, Volume LIII, Issue 187, 4 July 1919, Page 7



The Court of Appeal to-day delivered judgment in the case of Joe Lum v. the Attorney-General. This was an originating summons ito determine the meaning or the d>efinition of "Chinese" im the Immigration Restrictions Act. The facts were that a Chinaman, married here, wished to send his children, all born in New Zealand, to China to be educated, and the question was whether, if they did not return to New Zealand in four years, they came under the definition and would be subject to the restrictions of the Adt.

The Court held that the children in such case would not come under the restrictions of the Act.

Hawera & Normanby Star, Volume LXXVIII, 9 July 1919, Page 5




Various judgments were delivered by the Court of Appeal yesterday afternoon. On the Bench were the Chief Justice (Sir Robert Stout), Mr. Justice Cooper, Mr. Justice Sim, and Mr. Justice Herdman. The case of Joe Lum, Chinese storekeeper, of Wellington, against the Attorney-General, involving the question as to whether children born of Chinese parents in New Zealand and visiting China for the purpose of completing theit education would be subject, on their return after an absence of more than four years, to the poll tax of £100, a,-I to undergo the educational test, was elided. The Chief Justice said the chile en were natural-born New Zealand1 s bjeets, and were therefore not subject ir> the Immigration Restriction Act. 'H Justice Cooper had no doubt that the plaintiff's children, although Chinese by blood, were natives of New Zealand and not of China, and were therefore British subjects. Mr. Justice Sim and Mr. Justice_ Herdman also found in favour of plaintiff. Sir John Findlay, K.C., with him Mr. Brandon, appeared for Lum, and Sir John Salmond, K.C., for the Attorney-General. Evening Post, Volume XCVIII, Issue 8, 9 July 1919, Page 4


A spectator sends the following to the ' Grey River Argus' An interesting ceremony took place on Tuesday last in tho shape of: a Chinese funeral. The person interred was a poor fellow named Tung Lum Lan, aged 47 years. He came to Greymouth on Friday last, afflicted with lung disease, which terminated fatally on Sunday last at 5 a.m Deceased was a native of Canton, and, although there are nearly 1,000 Chinese in Westland, only five of them (those belonging to the firm of Kum Sing Tie, of this town) contributed to hie interment. Upon the arrival of the followers at the hospital, where the deceased lay, the body was clothed in a costly suit, and shoes were placed upon his feet, after having the leather part of soles taken off. The body was then placed in the coffin, and the hands filled with cards 5 inches by 1 inch, inscribed with Chinese characters, many more of the same description being placed on the body ; these were passports entitling him to accommodation at the various castles in the air on the road to glory-and-joss. After the departure of the funeral cortege from the hospital, the coffin was literally covered with slips of paper, similar pieces being scattered on the road to the burial ground. On arrival the coffin was lowered at the foot of tho grave on the surface ; a quantity of provisions, consisting of boiled eggs, bacon and rice, preserved lemon and nuts, chopsticks are also provided, and lest he become faint on his way a bottle of Chinese and three diminutive cups will bo found useful. An illumination was then made from lighted Chinese painted candles and sandalwood matches, to light him on his way and keep away the evil one ; a fire was made at the foot of the grave, in which they burnt a large quantity of golden paper, and, while this was being consumed, a final adieu was taken by each of tho mourners placing his two hands together, aud, in a stooping position, lifting them to his head and letting them drop to his feet. Chinese brandy, fruit and cakes were then served round to the spectators, of which all partook freely. Strips of pink calico, about 2 feet 6 inches long, enclosing a silver coin (English money), were then distributed to the public, this latter an emblem of ' good will to all ' men by the deceased. The whole proceeding was a great novelty to the Europeans, and a Maori or two, who ' kapaied ' it the latter part of the ceremony especially and I have no hesitation in saying that had their funeral customs been kuown, and sufficient notice given, the majority of the people of Greymouth would not have missed such a solemn- jolly ceremony." New Zealand Tablet, Volume III, Issue 119, 6 August 1875, Page 15

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

William Henry Ying

William Henry Ying

Studio portrait of a Chinese boy, full length, standing, crossed legs, holding cricket bat and ball.

Find out more about this image, or download a hi-res copy, by checking out our catalogue:

Tuesday, December 13, 2011



Mr. Fuen Key Leong, one of the most progressive and active members of the Chinese community, died at his home in Levin recently. Born in Canton in 1878, Mr. Leong came to New Zealand at the age of 17, and in 1915 returned to China, where he remained for 20 years, in a varied business career, which he combined with much activity in public welfare and church interests. Since his return to New Zealand in 1935, he frequently assisted in the collection of funds for the relief of Chinese refugees. He was on the committee of the Wellington Chinese Church and the Wellington Baptist Church. Member of the Levin standing committee of the Chinese Association, and delegate to the all-New Zealand annual conference, he was also a member of the Tung Jung Association. As a bowler he played for the Levin Central Club. The late Mr. Leong was held in the highest esteem by Chinese and European alike. He is survived by his widow, three sons, five daughters, and fifteen grandchildren, all of whom reside in New Zealand, except the eldest daughter and her family, who are in Australia. Evening Post, Volume CXL, Issue 13, 16 July 1945, Page 7

LEONG. —On July 5, 1945, at his residence, Oxford St. Levin, Fuen Key Leong, beloved husband of Wong Fong Ling. Leong;: aged 67 years. Evening Post, Volume CXL, Issue 5, 6 July 1945, Page 1

Opening of the Yachting Season at Dunedin.

Back Row: T'aam Wa-tsing, Lei Tsz-Ch'iu, Chan C. Ping, Joe Say, Paul H. Chan, J. Yowon Kaan, Mark Yauloi Chan. Third Row; Mr Peter Dick, Chan Paak Ta'eung, Chung Sai, John W. Ch'an, Wong K'aufoon, Lo Shing-Tsau, Chas. Y. Kwong, Yuet Chiu-lap.

Second Row: Lo Keong, Mrs Lo Keong, Mrs A. Don, Mrs Gordon Macdonald, Miss Laing, W K. Chan.

Front Row: Rev. W. Mawson, MA., Miss M. J. Sinclair, Mis 3S. M. Gordon, M.A., Miss E. Don- H. J. Gill M. Watson, Rev. A. Otago Witness , Issue 2591, 11 November 1903, Page 41

GROUP INCLUDING CHINESE ORDAINED TO THE ELDERSHIP OF THE CHINESE CHURCH, JUNE 12, 1904. At Back. Rev. W. Hewitson, Elder Lo Keong and Rev. A. Don. Gill, photo. Front Row: Elders W. Chan and Paul Chan. Otago Witness , Issue 2627, 20 July 1904, Page 46